Communication skills include listening, speaking, reading and writing. In a speech-language evaluation, we look at each of the areas separately, as well as the whole communication picture, including cognition. The goal is to identify the person’s strengths and areas that need training or retraining.

SPEECH refers to production of speech sounds (articulation), the rhythmic pattern of speech (stuttering/fluency) and efficient use of the voice. Articulation requires accurate production of the speech sounds, and the physical skills to produce each of those sounds. Testing in this area detects incorrect production of speech sounds and the causes. Stuttering/fluency, an aspect of speech that varies with the situations. Although there is a “normal dysfluency” period in young children while developing language skills,the child may need assessment to determine if it is indeed just that or something beyond that, requiring treatment. Voice disorders have 2 basic types: 1. Organic disorders that are physical in nature and result from physical changes, and/or disorders resulting from nerves affecting the performance of the voice. Or, 2. Functional disorders resulting from inefficient use of the voice mechanism, sometimes termed “vocal abuse” (i.e., too much screaming, smoking, excessive talking, etc.)

LANGUAGE addresses the individual’s skills in understanding messages others are sending (receptive language) and organizing and expressing messages, so they are understood by others (expressive language).

RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE – This includes taking in both oral information and reading. Testing in this area includes understanding and responding to questions from others, accurately following age appropriate directions, and listening to or reading paragraphs and answering questions about them.
EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE – Verbal expression and written expression are included here. There are various components to language; grammar, sentence structure, word meanings and vocabulary, as examples. Each of these areas is assessed to uncover the individual’s strengths and needs in improving expression.
PRAGMATICS – the feature of language which addresses the individual’s ability to relate to others. The social aspect of communication is contained in this category. It includes word choices, topic choices, all of nonverbal communication (tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures, etc.). The words, “appropriate” and “inappropriate” often apply here.
COGNITION is another word for “thinking”. There are many areas of thought that allow us to attend and concentrate, recall, solve problems, make decisions, initiate tasks, to name just a few functions. Testing in this area allows speech-language pathologists to understand strengths, and areas requiring additional habilitation and rehabilitation to function successfully in their environment.

All speech-language pathologists have services that they choose to offer. Here are Dr. Judi’s:

  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

  • Strokes/Aphasia

  • Central Auditory Processing Disorders

  • Social Skills

  • Language Learning Disabilities

  • Stuttering/Fluency

  • Reading and Writing

DYSPHAGIA, also known as a Swallowing Disorder, results from an injury or medical condition. It is typically treated in a medical setting or at an individual’s home.

“Inspiring others, cheering them on, and watching them progress in developing their communication skills has always been my passion. I’ve practiced with many age groups, in many different locations, but always shooting for the best possible outcomes.”

Dr. Judith Grunwald, CCC/SLP has a bachelor’s degree from Queens College and a master’s degree from Towson University, both in Speech-Language Pathology. She has also earned a Doctorate in Human Development. Judi has been a speech-language pathologist for over three decades. In that time, she has worked with children with the following disorders: learning disabilities, intellectual disabilities, ADD, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, for 20 years, she has worked with adolescents and adults with strokes and traumatic brain injuries (tbi). Judi currently holds speech-language pathology licenses in Maryland and Arizona. For license verification please click below.

Maryland  |  Arizona


  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (CCC/SLP)
  • Life Coaching:   International Coach Federation (ACC)
  • Integrative Health and Wellness; University of Arizona
  • Integrated Listening Systems:
    • Safe and Sound Protocol (SSP)
    • Focus 30/60
    • Voice Pro